The beginnings of the Department of Philosophy from the 1920s on have been influenced by philosopher France Veber, the department's first professor. His main topics were related to the History of Philosophy, Systematic Philosophy and Ethics, Aesthetics, and Cognitive Philosophy. The emphasis on the Philosophy of Historical Materialism was stronger after 1945 when the study was conducted by professors Boris Ziherl and Cene Logar. In 1954 the department was renamed as the Department of Philosophy and Sociology. The cathedra for Historical Materialism became a part of the new Department of Sociology at the University of Ljubljana's Faculty of Arts in 1960.
After introducing the postgraduate study the Department of Philosophy formed 4 new cathedrae with new professors: History of Philosophy and Phenomenology; Logics, Science Methodology and Cognitive Science Philosophy; Social Philosophy, Philosophy of History, Theoretical Psychoanalysis; Systematics Philosophy. Until today, the Department of Philosophy is still unique in its approach which represents different philosophical orientations under one roof instead following one tradition only.
Graduate studies include a 2-year Masters Degree programme and a guided PhD programme, both covered by the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS), which allows for participants to combine their postgraduate studies in Ljubljana with their studies at other universities, or to complete all of their postgraduate studies in Ljubljana. Exchange programmes (SOCRATES-ERASMUS, CEEPUS, university exchanges) also enable professors and students from other universities to participate in the graduate programme.