The museum is one of the units of the Centre of Military Schools and resides together with them in the Maribor Cadet School. The school was built specifically for military education purposes back in 1856 by the Austrian emperor and was returned to its former function in 2004. In that same year, the Centre for Military-History Activities was re-organised into the present-day museum and moved into these premises.
The main bulk of the museum's materials is divided into 15 primary collections, among them: light weaponry; uniforms and equipment; armoured vehicles and artillery; aviation and air defence; navy materials; archival documents and maps; medals and rank insignia; photo and video materials; stamps and seals; military related arts collection. Most of the pieces in these collections originate from the 20th century, though some of them go back a few centuries more, such as the vintage pistols from the 18th and 19th centuries.
The 3 additional exhibitions deal with specific historic situations – the fight for the northern Slovenian border under General Maister (1918–1920), the independence war in 1991 and the development of the Slovenian army from 1991 until the present. Another exhibition is made up of small model figures that show the different types, uniforms and weaponry of the numerous soldiers passing through Slovenian territories in the last two thousand years. There is also a collection of ceremonial and protocol gifts received by the first two presidents of Slovenia, who both subsequently donated them to the museum. Parts of the museum's collections are also digitised and available through its website. The museum also sets up various small-scale exhibitions in army barracks throughout Slovenia.
The scientific studies, conducted both by the museum personnel and also other historians, are published in the journal called Vojaška zgodovina [Military History]. The museum also takes care of the library of the Centre of Military Schools and organises workshops, lectures, symposiums and engages in pedagogical activities of the schools themselves.
A complementary part to the Military Museum collections can be found in the Park of Military History Pivka, which houses a number of bigger items (a submarine, for example) and boasts a very diverse tank collection. The park was established with curatorial help and also donations from the Military Museum.